It is the abnormal condition of the retina resulting from the systemic disease -Diabetes, wherein the disease is not kept under control and duration of the disease is longer. The disease process affects the blood vessels of the entire body, the vessels of the eye being much more prone to diabetic changes. The patient will experience blurring of vision, black spots and patches, sudden loss of complete vision also can happen.
The clinical examination reveals bleeding in the retina, abnormal deposits, abnormal and fragile new blood vessels which can bleed easily and in advanced stages, the retina is completely blocked from receiving light by blood or retina getting detached from the other layers thereby patient experiencing sudden loss of vision. When the disease process heals, the retina is scarred, thereby losing its functional capacity.
In the initial stages of the disease process, the treatment includes injection of drugs into the eye, Laser procedure and medications. But in advanced stages, the patient requires surgery. The prevention and control of the disease process as well as surgical success of the condition depends on good control of disease itself. Patient also needs to be under regular follow-up which can help in picking up complications of the disease at the earliest.